Measures - descriptions


The GAD-7 is a self-reported questionnaire for screening and severity measuring of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), copyrighted by Pfizer. GAD-7 has seven items, which measure severity of various signs of generalized anxiety disorder according to reported response categories of “not at all,” “several days,” “more than half the days,” and “nearly every day.” Assessment is indicated by the total score, which is made up by adding together the scores for all seven items.


Validation information

© Pfizer Inc

Ref:  Spitzer RL, Kroenke K, Williams JB, et al A brief measure for assessing generalised anxiety disorder: the GAD-7. Archives of  Internal Medicine. 2006 May 22;166(10):1092-7.





The PHQ-9 is a self-report measure copyrighted by Pfizer Inc that is used as a screening and diagnostic tool for depression. It was designed for use in primary care settings It is scored by adding up the scores for each item to arrive at a total score. The clinical cut-off score is 10, where higher scores are indicative of depression, the higher the score the more intense the depression.  

Validation information

© Pfizer Inc

From the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire (PRIME-MD PHQ). The PHQ was developed by Drs. Robert L. Spitzer, Janet B.W. Williams, Kurt Kroenke and colleagues. For research information, contact Dr. Spitzer at PRIME-MD® is a trademark of Pfizer Inc. Copyright© 1999 Pfizer Inc. All rights reserved. 


The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is a simple widely used 5-item measure of disability. It looks at how stress impacts on your work, home, and social life.

Validation information

© Mundt

Ref: Mundt, J. C., I. M. Marks, et al. (2002). "The Work and Social Adjustment Scale: a simple measure of impairment in functioning." Br J Psychiatry 180: 461-4.



The Social Phobia Inventory (abbreviated as SPIN) is a 17-item questionnaire developed by the Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Department at Duke University. It is effective in screening for, and measuring the severity of social anxiety disorder.


Validation information

© Connor

Ref: Connor, K.M. et al. (2000) Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN): New Self-Rating Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry. 176, 279-386



The Outcome Rating Scale is an ultra-brief 4 item visual analogue scale that measures 4 domains; individual, interpersonal, social and overall, using 10cm lines in the paper version. Being quick to administer and score and with focus on more open areas rather than specific elements of distress it is ideal for use on a sessional basis in a wide variety of contexts.

ORS in Pragmatic Tracker


Validation information


There is a wealth of information from many studies using ORS and SRS measures. See Scott Miller's blog for more information. Click here for an example paper.

© 2000, Scott D Miller & Barry L Duncan



The short Warwick and Edinburgh mental Wellbeing Scale (SWEMWBS) is a unidimensional seven item scale that measures positive mental wellbeing.

© Scottish National Health Service

Ref: Stewart-Brown, S., Tennant, A., Tennant, R., Platt, S., Parkison, J. & Weich, S. (2009) Internal Construct Validity of the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS): A Rasch analysis using data from the Scottish Health Education Population Survey. Health and quality of life outcomes, 7:15  

More information 


The Ratings of Outcome Scale (ROS) is an ultra-brief 3 item measure of change designed to be free from diagnostic constraints while measuring key areas of individual, relational and wider social functioning.

© 2011 Jason A. Seidel, Psy.D


The Emotional Needs Audit is a simple diagnostic questionnaire developed by the Human Givens Institute which helps to identify unmet need. A peer reviewed article has been published on its reliability and validity (see here) although there are no data available as yet about it as a measurement of change in treatment.

© Human Givens Institute


The Pragmatic research Network 14 item measure (PRN-14) is based on the evolution of the work around the ENA, described above. Through an iterative process of development, including factor analysis, use of focus groups and continuing feedback from users the measure has matured to its current form. It's in use in the UK and USA. In addition to items concerned with unmet need, other items around functioning, which are more sensitive to change, are included. Currently research is in progress to look at the sensitivity of the instrument to change in treatment and how well it correlates with other well validated instruments.

© 2014 Manyother Ltd



page last updated: 26/11/2019

This website uses cookies for statistical usage data. By continuing to use this site, you agree to the use of cookies. Don't show this again